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MOODS

 

1. Direct

-    the Indicative - expresses facts (i.e. the speaker represents the action as a real fact). Verbs in the Indicative mood have tense, aspect, voice.

e.g. He phoned an hour ago that he was starting at once.

-    the Imperative - expresses the will of the speaker in the form of commands and requests.

- commands
- requests
- Let's
- Will you

2. Oblique

-   the Conditional - expresses the unreal action the unreality of which is due to the absence of the necessary conditions.

e.g. If I were free I'd go for a walk.

-    Subjunctive II - represents the action as contrary to reality.

e.g. Oh, I wish I'd never seen him.

-    the Suppositional - represents the action as problematic but not contradicting to reality ( i.e. as desirable, suggested, supposed).

e.g. It was better that she should go to Madam Donovan.

-    Subjunctive I - is close to the suppositional mood in its meaning but is mostly used in the language of official documents and the American variant of English.

e.g. God save the Queen.

 

 


THE CONDITIONAL MOOD.

 

The Conditional Mood expresses the unreal action the unreality of which is due to the absence of the necessary conditions.

I.    (should) would + the simple inf. - the non-perfect form - refers the action to the present or the future, i.e. expresses simultaneousness.

II.  (should) would + the perfect inf. - the perfect form - refers the action to the past, i.e. expresses priority.

The use of the Conditional Mood.

The usage The example
1. In the principal part of sentences with adverbial clauses of unreal condition and concession introduced by if, even if (so-calledconditional sentences of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th types*). If I were you I would go there at once.
Even if you had gone to the park, you wouldn’t have seen the singer.
2. In simple sentences when the condition may be implied by the context. I’d like you to make friends with Nick.
It would be nice for you.
3. In simple sentences after the combination but for (если бы не) But for the rain they would have tidied up the garden.
4. In sentences and clauses after the conjunctive adverb otherwise. We were lucky to have fine weather otherwise we would have out off our outing.

* The. conditional sentence of the 2nd type refers the action to the present or the future.

e.g. If he were not ill he would come.

The conditional sentence of the 3rd type refers the action to the past.

e.g. He had plenty of money then, but I'd have married him even if he hadn't had a cent.

The conditional sentence of the 4th type means that one part of the sentence refers the action to the present or the future but the other refers the action to the past.

e.g. If I hadn't done that work then, I wouldn't be free today.

NOTE: We can use a modal verb instead of the auxiliary verb if it's necessary.

 


SUBJUNCTIVE II.

 

Subjunctive II represents the action as unreal, as contrary to reality.

I.  the Past Indefinite (were, went) - the non - perfect form - refers the action to the present or the future, i.e. expresses simultaneousness.

II. the Past Perfect (had been/gone) - the perfect form - refers the action to the past (when the action is not fulfilled), i.e. expresses priority.

The use of Subjunctive II.

The usage The example
1. In adverbial clauses of unreal condition after the conjunctions if, on condition, in case, and of concession after even if, even though. I'd do it at once if I were you.
Even though he were free, he wouldn't go with us.
2. In object clauses after the verb to wish to express an unreal desired action. I wish I could skate (the action refers to the present and the future)
I wish you had come to the party. (the action refers to the past)
I wish you would stop listening to that terrible music. (expressing annoyance)
3. In exclamatory sentences to express a wish which cannot be fulfilled after if only. If only he had given me a chance!
4. In adverbial clauses after the conjunctions as if, as though He smiled as if he were amused by my joke.
You look as if you had not slept.
5. After the expressions it’s time, it’s high time. It’s time he were here.
6. In adverbial clauses of purpose after the conjunctions so that, in order that, in case. Put down my phone number so that you could get in touch with me whenever you want.
7. In simple sentences to express
a) advice
b) preference.
a) It's getting dark. You had better switch on the light.
b) I would rather (sooner) stay at home.

NOTE: If it's necessary to use a modal verb, we use it instead of the auxiliary verb.

 


THE SUPPOSITIONAL MOOD.

 

The Suppositional represents the action as problematic but not contradicting to reality (i.e. as desirable, suggested, supposed, etc).

I. should + the simple inf. - the non - perfect form - refers the action to the present or the future, i.e. expresses simultaneousness.

II. should + the perfect inf. - the perfect form - refers the action to the past, i.e. expresses priority.

The use of the Suppositional Mood.

The usage The example
1. In subject clauses after the principal clauses denoting subjective appraisal of the action or situation described in the subordinate clause (e.g. it is necessary/ impossible/ strange/ annoying/ a shame/ a pity/ etc. + that). It's incredible that she should have risen so early.
2. In object, predicative and attributive clauses after verbs and nouns denoting suggestion, recommendation and order (e.g. to demand/ insist/ suggest/ advise/ request/ etc; suggestion/ advice/ recommendation/ etc + that). He suggested that we should take part in the party.
3. In object, predicative and appositive clauses after the expressions denoting feelings (e.g. to be glad/ afraid/ sorry/ anxious/ etc. + that). He was sorry that we should have missed the train.
4. In object, predicative and appositive clauses after the expressions of fear (e.g. to fear, to worry, to be afraid, for fear, worry, etc.) with the conjunction lest. They feared lest we should be late.
5. In adverbial clauses of purpose after the conjunctions in case, in order that, so that. Close the window so that we should not be cold.

NOTE: the Suppositional Mood is used in the British variant of English, especially if the sentence is emotionally coloured.

 


SUBJUNCTIVE I.

 

Subjunctive I is close to the Suppositional mood in its meaning (i.e. represents the action as problematic but not contradicting to reality, that is
as desirable, suggested, supposed, etc.).

I. Subjunctive I has only one form - the form which is homonymic with the form of the Indefinite (Simple) Infinitive:

I be, write
he/she/ it
we
you

they

Subjunctive I is never used with the reference to the past.

Subjunctive I is never used with the negation.

The use of Subjunctive I.

The usage The example
1. In simple sentences (usually exclamatory) with an optative meaning. So be it!
Success attend you!
God bless you!
2. In subject clauses after the principal clauses denoting subjective appraisal of the action or situation described in the subordinate clause (e.g. it is necessary/ impossible/ strange/ annoying/ a shame/ a pity/ etc. + that). It's incredible that she rise so early.
3. In object, predicative and attributive clauses after verbs and nouns denoting suggestion, demand, recommendation and order (e.g. to demand/ insist/ suggest/ advise/ request/ etc; suggestion/ advice/ recommendation/ etc. + that). He suggested that we take part in the party.
4. In object, predicative and appositive clauses after the expressions denoting feelings (e.g. to be glad/ afraid/ sorry/ anxious/ etc. + that). He was sorry that we miss the concert.
5. In object, predicative and appositive, clauses after the expressions of fear (e.g. to fear, to worry, to be afraid, for fear, worry, etc.) with the conjunction lest. They were afraid lest we be late.
6. In adverbial clauses of purpose after the conjunctions' in case, in order that, so that. Close the window so that we be warm.

 

 

 


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Комментарии 

 
0 # poli 14.05.2013 13:12
:-* какая разница между i am glad that you sould have done it/ i am glad that you has done it/ i am glad to have done it/ перевод один? я рад, что я сделал это?
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+2 # Алла Н. Коцур 15.05.2013 18:46
I am glad that you HAVE (а не has) done it значит "Я рад, что ты сделал это", а I am glad to have done it значит "Я рад, что я сделал это".
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0 # Ирина Евгеньевна 08.05.2014 11:27
Спасибо за материал!
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